On the antecedent and consequent will

This is per se nota:

One giving a test antecedently wills every individual taking it to pass, but one cannot consequently will every individual to pass, assuming some do not. 

The antecedent will of one giving a test is exercised by writing it and/or preparing students for it, so antecedently willing failure means to intend the failure of some individual even before he sees their answers, in which case one does not have a trial at all but merely the appearance of one. The consequent will is how one evaluates the test given the students have taken it, and in this sense to will that every individual pass (assuming some in fact did not) means that one would pass no matter how he did, which again means that it was not a test at all but only the appearance of one.

And so to say that God antecedently wills the salvation of each individual but consequently does not follows simply from salvation following a test that some fail, and this is not a fact about God as such but about tests.  The antecedent and consequent will is one simple reality ex parte dei and two distinct realities ex parte creatorum i.e. the real distinction between the person before and after death and judgment.

Notice that when Thomas divides the antecedent and consequent will he divides them simpliciter, but we are here dividing them with respect to a test or trial, and further stipulating that life is a trial that some in fact fail.

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