God and soul

0.) Both God and the human soul are spirits conferring substantial existence on another.

1.) By creation, God confers substantial existence on another, presupposing nothing. By animating, the soul confers substantial existence, presupposing potential being properly disposed.

2.) The soul is part of the substance on which it confers substantial existence but God is not a part of the universe of substances on which he confers substantial existence (conflating God and soul in this sense is a commonly undiagnosed source of theological error.) Any relation of parts and wholes is called being proportionate. 

3.) The substantial existence conferred by God is other than his own, since creation is not proportionate to him. The substantial existence conferred by soul is proportionate to properly disposed matter, making the substantiality conferred male or female, of one evolutionary history or another, high or low in extraversion or IQ or any other phenotypical trait. The matter is essentially historical, making the soul proportionate not just to biological features but historical existence.

4.) Neither God nor the soul have a real relation to the that on which they confer substantial existence, since A has a real relation to B iff neither A nor B can exist separately.  God has neither proportion nor real relation to creation; the soul has proportion but not real relation to potency.

5.) God, an artisan, and nature are artisans in different orders of being. God depends on nothing in creating, an artisan depends on an actuality already conferred, nature depends on potentials not yet actual.

6.) The artisan makes an accident in a substance,* and so brings about what subsists by its inherence. Nature can make accidental forms but is not limited to doing so. Soul is natural and confers substantiality by inhering but either inherence is not necessary for its subsistence (the human soul) or it is (everything else.)

*Leaving aside the question of making styrofoam or plastics, which is neither the assistance in a natural process, like producing artificial diamonds, nor an obvious accidental form.




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