Verbs of willing, proper and not

Socrates thinks the verbs in these sentences

John wants1 to do good

John wants2 to do evil

Are the same as the ones in these:

The falcon flew1 95 feet.

The stone flew2 95 feet.

A flying2 stone shares significant features of flight1 but can’t fly1, and wanting2 evil shares significant features of wanting1 but can’t be wanted1.

The significant feature of (2)- type predicates is that they can include uses of the term that lack something essential to the term properly speaking. What flies properly speaking creates lift and drag or has aerodynamic buoyancy, and stones don’t do that. More simply, flight taken properly has to divide things that fly from things that can’t, and
flight2 doesn’t do so. Flight2 belongs to an ostrich as well as a falcon, or a dead falcon as well as a live one, as any of these objects might be shot from a catapult as easily as the other.

But wanting2 belongs just as much to those ignorant of what they are doing as those who understand, and knowledge is not inessential to desire.

The division between (1) and (2) type predicates includes all verbs of will and the states that arise from them: there is a desire (1) and (2), a wish, a love, a friend, etc.

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