Here’s a prediction of the Five Ways: given nature is ultimately in the instrumental order and all instruments lack the form by which they act, viewing nature as a closed system leads to a cluster of related beliefs:
1.) Brute facts exist. What happens is a determinate and predicable action with no explanation, i.e. an instrument acting apart from its agent.
2.) The physical and moral order are divided. The facts or truths of nature are divided entirely from an order of goods. Nature becomes potentially indifferent or cruel, and scientific facts are true irrespective of their consequences to life. That some theory could lead to the utter destruction of human life is not seen as affecting its truth. It’s the same facts that we study while trying to explain the beauty of creation or build a weapon to wipe out a whole civilization. It’s not as if the facts of nature object or rebut us when we set to work at figuring how to destroy a civilization.
3.) Man has power over nature. Nature is an inert system of interactions waiting to be put into motion by the experimenter. In nature, it can only be initiated by chance.
4.) Free will is random activity. We do by intention in the experiment what nature only does by chance. The domain of the intelligible comes to an end immediately before the interactive system starts working, i.e. with the initiation of the action by agency. Agency, intelligence, consciousness, and will are all strictly unintelligible – to make them intelligible is the same as to deny they exist at all.
5.) The objection to agency. This is called “the interaction problem”, i.e. how can there be anything intelligible outside an interactive system? The claim that the sciences “reduce everything to agent and material causes” is intelligible but profoundly mistaken. It is truer to say they do away with agency in an attempt to homogenize everything into an interactive system, i.e. to a network of instrumental causes.
6.) The correct and the sacred are unrelated. To divide the physical from the moral is to allow that truth is ugly or that the lie/ deception might be preferable to knowing what is. Truth cannot exist on the two axes of being correct and being a sacred value to be preserved.
7.) Life is not cultivated but created. The person is not a locus of possibilities in search of cultivation but a cluster of drives that are instruments or material for achieving whatever order we want.