Pre-Newton (for us “pre-science”)
1.) Physics is the science of motion
2.) Science is an ordered presentation of cause-effect relations.
3.) So physics is an ordered presentation of movers in their relation to moved things. We relate all motions (even the births of things) to the rotation of the stars, the impression of forces, or the action of energy on initial conditions.
1.) Physics is the science of motion.
2.) Motion is (or reduces to) action in space.
3.) Space is, of itself, without fixed borders, reference points, or landmarks.
4.) So of itself, motion is an action with no fixed borders or reference points. These must be provided by pure stipulation.
5.) Therefore, whether something is at rest or at motion is a matter of pure stipulation. Of themselves, motion and rest are indistinguishable. Call them states.