Metaphysics, self-refection, and certitude

Theism or atheism or agnosticism arise when we take the physical sciences themselves as an object of discourse. This, at least, has been a consistent feature of physical science from the first moment it existed until now. The science itself, that is, its method and conceptual scheme, are taken as material or as objects that fall under and are contextualized by some other discourse.

But if science itself has become an object of science, we have reached a final level of discourse. To introduce a supposed meta-level to this discourse would be simply to posit it again.

Nevertheless, physical science is still a material component to this last science, and matter forms an essential part of whatever it enters into. Thus, to the extent that physical science changes there will be essential changes in this self-reflective science.

But in order for there to be change at all there must be some reference to a stable background. But here we’re speaking about a science as a science, and so there must be something unchanging within it. The problem of certitude therefore arises again as a necessary component of our desire to reach to theism or atheism or agnosticism from a reflection on physical science.

Minimally, this certitude would be the mind’s own reflection on itself, that is, the cogito or something like it. Here we might reconnect with the Augustinian tradition or the post-Kantian idealists.

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