Both theists and atheists seek to establish something about God from the things seen in the world, which is fine, but in recent times, each has been drawn to certain false premises. Theists often argue that God must be the cause of certain events, because the chances of the things forming randomly are exceedingly rare (think: “the odds of all the parts of the eye just coming together are… and then there is some number in scientific notation that is immensely huge, and no one ever quite knows where it came from). The argument is false on its face, and even seems to prove the opposite of what the theist would have it prove: because when things do actually come to be by chance, they tend to be rare anyway. If the formation of the eye is as improbable as winning the lottery, we should, on this theist’s premises, assume that the eye is formed in the same way one wins the lottery: accidentally. Beyond this, as many scientists have pointed out, one can never conclude from the probability of something to when it will occur in a sequence of events.
Atheists are often drawn to the premise that if something is formed by chance, it is not the product of mind (think the pop atheist darwinian arguments). This consequence is also false on its face, for most living individuals are formed by a random sperm cell and a random egg (No father chooses the seed that will conceive his child, no mother the egg) and this is no impediment to these events being planned and designed. The opinion also assumes that if there is no natural cause, there is no cause at all, which, since it is precisely the issue being disputed, is to beg the question. The assumption is strange anyway, since it is similar to saying that since no rose ever planned to plant itself, therefore no rose was ever planted by design. This argument is not limited to merely human agency: no tree ever planned to hold nests or make beaver dams, and no flower ever planned to be honey.
But both the theists and the atheists who argue this way have a more fundamental problem, in that their philosophical account of the world has not ascended to an understanding of being as such. Although, as a rule, these theists and atheists are incredibly bright, their philosophical understanding is still what St. Thomas would call of a grosser kind. Once we see things in the light of being as such, it is false to conclude that chance events, even as chance events, lack a cause, because chance events and the beings formed by them are still beings.