Human Immortality, Part EightObjections and

Human Immortality, Part Eight

Objections and responses

1.) M: Whatever is damaged by damage to the body, does not have an operation that rises above the body
m: But the operation of the human soul is damaged by damage to the body.

To the minor

If the premise is said of the soul in the state of union, I concede
If the premise is said of the soul in the state of separation, I deny

The life of the human soul can be understood in two ways: first, inasmuch as the soul is a part of a complete person, and in this way the soul is giving life to a man; and second, inasmuch as the soul is itself alive, and capable of operation apart from being a complete human person. So long as the complete person exists, then the soul is a part, and as such can be affected or damaged by damage to the whole. This state-where a complete person exists- is called the state of union, a state in which all the soul’s activities have some relation to the state of the body. The state after death is called the state of separation, where an incomplete human subject exists, which can be called a person only in an extended sense of the term.

2.) No incomplete person can have the operation of a complete person.
Knowledge is an operation of a complete person.

To the major:

No incomplete person can have the operation of a complete person in the same way that the complete person has it- I concede.
No incomplete person can have the operation of a complete person in a different way- I deny.

To know is to possess the form of another. In the state of union, the form of the other is recieved through the senses. If this were the only way of knowing, then it would be impossible for any purely spiritual being to be a knower. But not only is it possible for a purely spiritual being to know, but a purely spiritual being is a more perfect knower than a knower inmeshed in matter (as those who know by sensation alone.)

3.) No knower is conscious of a knowing operation apart from the body.
All knowers are conscious of their operations of knowing.

To the Major:

No knower is so conscious in the state of union- I pass over
No knower is conscious of of an operation apart from the body in the state of separation- I deny

The fact of human death creates the fact that man has a double existence as a knower and as a willer. Given that all men have such a difficult time understanding any state of life until they experience it, it should not be surprising that we have such a difficult time understanding, or even accepting the existence of the state of separation. A cocky twelve year old can have a far better understanding of what it means to be a mature, wise, reflective grandfather than the average person understands what it means to be a soul in the state of separation.

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